Difference between revisions of "Mastering"

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(Media dependant rules)
m (Media dependant rules)
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Various output media has various rules.
 
Various output media has various rules.
 
* '''LPs''' require subsonics to be removed and the lower frequencies must be mono. How deep you can allow stereo depends widely on the pressing facility and the cutting lathe used. The cheap Panasonic vinyl cutter must have mono below 700 Hz. The Czech based company CZ Media require mono below 300 Hz, and the old Neumann cutting lathe supposedly allows stereo all the way down to 35 Hz, according to an english mastering technician.
 
* '''LPs''' require subsonics to be removed and the lower frequencies must be mono. How deep you can allow stereo depends widely on the pressing facility and the cutting lathe used. The cheap Panasonic vinyl cutter must have mono below 700 Hz. The Czech based company CZ Media require mono below 300 Hz, and the old Neumann cutting lathe supposedly allows stereo all the way down to 35 Hz, according to an english mastering technician.
* '''Analog tape''' typically adds white noise, and adding a bit of extra treble to a dark mix often helps fighting it. Also the over-all volume should be rather loud so that the noise becomes less noticeable.
+
* '''Analog tape''' typically adds white noise, and adding a bit of extra treble to a dark mix often helps fighting it. Also the over-all volume should be rather loud so that the noise becomes less noticeable. The choice between non-compressed, Dolby A, B, C or DBX must be made.
 
* '''CD and mp3''' are somewhat easier to deal with as they are digital.
 
* '''CD and mp3''' are somewhat easier to deal with as they are digital.
 
* Audio that is to be broadcast over '''radio or TV''' should be mono compatible.
 
* Audio that is to be broadcast over '''radio or TV''' should be mono compatible.

Revision as of 13:09, 26 July 2009

Mastering is the process of preparing one or multiple tracks for being transfered to a certain kind of media such as CD, LP or tape. Typical steps in mastering an album typically involves the following steps:

  • Editing out little mistakes
  • Removing noise and clicks if any
  • Checking for and removing unwanted subsonics
  • Checking the stereo width according to the destination media
  • Arranging the track in their proper order
  • Cross-fading between tracks or making the proper pauses between them
  • Adding reverb, exciters, vitalizers
  • Equalizing the tracks so that they match each other
  • Making the tracks appear to be the same volume
  • Compression
  • Limiting or saturating to bring up the global volume

Proper mastering usually also involves in listening to various types of speakers. For certain kinds of music, you even have to consider the target audience and listen to the music in car stereos while driving, mobile phones or similar, depending on the music genre and the typical behavior of a typical consumer.

Media dependant rules

Various output media has various rules.

  • LPs require subsonics to be removed and the lower frequencies must be mono. How deep you can allow stereo depends widely on the pressing facility and the cutting lathe used. The cheap Panasonic vinyl cutter must have mono below 700 Hz. The Czech based company CZ Media require mono below 300 Hz, and the old Neumann cutting lathe supposedly allows stereo all the way down to 35 Hz, according to an english mastering technician.
  • Analog tape typically adds white noise, and adding a bit of extra treble to a dark mix often helps fighting it. Also the over-all volume should be rather loud so that the noise becomes less noticeable. The choice between non-compressed, Dolby A, B, C or DBX must be made.
  • CD and mp3 are somewhat easier to deal with as they are digital.
  • Audio that is to be broadcast over radio or TV should be mono compatible.
  • Ring tones can be made louder by high-pass filtering 6dB/oct at 1000 Hz or 12 dB/oct at 500 Hz and then limiting it wildly to bring up the volume.